Document Type : original article


Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Literature, Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran


Purpose: Among the most important sex hormones that changes in their levels are related to different diseases pathogenesis can mentioned to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks’ selected resistance training on serum levels of estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and body composition in overweight premenopausal women.
Methods: Twenty premenopausal women assigned in two experiment (mean age 44.3±2.11 years) and control (mean age 42.3±5.37 years) groups. Experiment group performed resistance training for eight weeks, three sessions in week by using Thera band. resistance exercise consist of 16 movements for upper body, trunk and lower body. Each movement performed with 10 repetitions, 3 set and two-minute interval rest between sets and one minute’s rest between exercises. 48 hours after the last exercise session, blood samples collected and desired variables (SHBG and estradiol) were measured by Elisa method. Data analyzed by analyze covariance test.
Results: Increase the SHBG and decrease of body fat percent were significant in training group. But, changes in serum levels of estradiol wasn’t significant statistically.
Conclusion: Different type of exercise training play important role in modulation of sex hormones levels. According to present study results, probably resistance training with Thera band have positive effects on modulate of sex hormones levels in women with overweight.


1. Choijookhuu N, Hino SI, Oo PS, Batmunkh B,
Hishikawa Y. The role of estrogen receptors in
intestinal homeostasis and disease. Receptors
& Clinical Investigation. 2016; 4;3(1).2. López M, Tena-Sempere M. Estrogens and
the control of energy homeostasis: a brain perspective.
Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism.
2015; 26: 411-21.
3. Bondesson M, Hao R, Lin CY, Williams C,
Gustafsson JÅ. Estrogen receptor signaling
during vertebrate development. Biochimica et
Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Gene Regulatory Mechanisms.
2015; 1849: 142-51.
4. Pasquali R. Obesity, fat distribution and infertility.
Maturitas. 2006; 54:363-71.
5. Lorincz AM, Sukumar S. Molecular links
between obesity and breast cancer. Endocrine-
related cancer. 2006; 13: 279-92.
6. Xita N, Tsatsoulis A. Genetic variants of sex
hormone-binding globulin and their biological
consequences. Molecular and cellular endocrinology.
2010; 316(1):60-5.
7. Wallace IR, McKinley MC, Bell PM, Hunter
SJ. Sex hormone binding globulin and insulin
resistance. Clinical endocrinology. 2013;
8. del Mar Grasa M, Gulfo J, Camps N, Alcalá
R, Monserrat L, Moreno-Navarrete JM, et al.
Modulation of SHBG binding to testosterone
and estradiol by sex and morbid obesity. European
journal of endocrinology. 2017; 176:
9. McTiernan A, Rajan KB, Tworoger SS, Irwin
M, Bernstein L, Baumgartner R, et al. Adiposity
and sex hormones in postmenopausal breast
cancer survivors. Journal of Clinical Oncology.
2003; 21:1961-6.
10. Karim R, Mack WJ, Hodis HN, Roy S,Stanczyk FZ. Influence of age and obesity on
serum estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone
binding globulin concentrations following oral
estrogen administration in postmenopausal
women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology
& Metabolism. 2009; 94: 4136-43.
11. Leitner L, Jürets A, Itariu BK, Keck M, Prager
G, Langer F, et al. Osteopontin promotes aromatase
expression and estradiol production in
human adipocytes. Breast cancer research and
treatment. 2015; 154:63-9.
12. Rinaldi S, Geay A, Déchaud H, Biessy C, Zeleniuch-
Jacquotte A, Akhmedkhanov A, et al.
Validity of free testosterone and free estradiol
determinations in serum samples from postmenopausal
women by theoretical calculations.
Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
Biomarkers. 2002; 11:1065-71.
13. Chan MF, Dowsett M, Folkerd E, Bingham
S, Wareham N, Luben R, Welch A, Khaw KT.
Usual physical activity and endogenous sex
hormones in postmenopausal women: The
European Prospective Investigation into Cancer–
Norfolk Population Study. Cancer Epidemiology
and Prevention Biomarkers. 2007; 16:
14. McTiernan A, Wu L, Chen C, Chlebowski
R, Mossavar‐Rahmani Y, Modugno F, et al. Relation
of BMI and physical activity to sex hormones
in postmenopausal women. Obesity.
2006; 14:1662-77.
15. Baglietto L, English DR, Hopper JL, MacInnis
RJ, Morris HA, Tilley WD, Krishnan K, Giles
GG. Circulating steroid hormone concentrations
in postmenopausal women in relation to
body size and composition. Breast cancer research
and treatment. 2009; 115:171-9.
16. Friedenreich CM, Neilson HK, Wang Q,
Stanczyk FZ, Yasui Y, Duha A, et al. Effects of
exercise dose on endogenous estrogens in
postmenopausal women: a randomized trial.
Endocrine-related cancer. 2015; 22: 863-76.
17. Dethlefsen C, Lillelund C, Midtgaard J, Andersen
C, Pedersen BK, Christensen JF, Hojman
P. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability:
systemic training adaptations versus acute
exercise responses. Breast cancer research
and treatment. 2016; 159:469-79.
18. Friedenreich CM, Woolcott CG, McTiernan
A, Ballard-Barbash R, Brant RF, Stanczyk FZ, et
al. Alberta physical activity and breast cancer
prevention trial: sex hormone changes in a
year-long exercise intervention among postmenopausal
women. Journal of Clinical Oncology.
2010; 28:1458-66.
19. Ratamess NA, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS,
Maresh CM, Van Heest JL, Rubin MR, et al. Effects
of heavy resistance exercise volume on
post-exercise androgen receptor content in
resistance-trained men. Medicine & Science in
Sports & Exercise. 2004; 36(5): S238.
20. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Hormonal
responses and adaptations to resistance exercise
and training. Sports medicine. 2005;
21. Khorshidi D, Sarmadiyan M, Khoramjah M.
Effect of Aerobic- Strength Training on Sex Hormone
Binding Globulin and Some Obesity Indices in Overweight and Obese Postmenopausal
Women. Breast diseases. 2016; 1(9): 7-13.
22. Roberts CK, Croymans DM, Aziz N, Butch
AW, Lee CC. Resistance training increases
SHBG in overweight/obese, young men. Metabolism-
Clinical and Experimental. 2013;
23. Ennour-Idrissi K, Maunsell E, Diorio C. Effect
of physical activity on sex hormones in
women: a systematic review and meta-analysis
of randomized controlled trials. Breast Cancer
Research. 2015; 17:139.
24. Andersen LL, Andersen CH, Zebis MK, Nielsen
PK, Søgaard K, Sjøgaard G. Effect of physical
training on function of chronically painful
muscles: a randomized controlled trial. Journal
of applied physiology. 2008; 105(6):1796-801.
25. Jakobsen MD, Sundstrup E, Andersen CH,
Aagaard P, Andersen LL. Muscle activity during
leg strengthening exercise using free weights
and elastic resistance: effects of ballistic vs
controlled contractions. Human Movement
Science. 2013; 32(1):65-78.
26. Yu W, An C, Kang H. Effects of resistance exercise
using thera-band on balance of elderly
adults: a randomized controlled trial. Journal
of physical therapy science. 2013; 25:1471-3.
27. Patterson RM, Stegink Jansen CW, Hogan
HA, Nassif MD. Material properties of theraband
tubing. Physical therapy. 2001; 81:1437-
28. Kwon HR, Han KA, Ku YH, Ahn HJ, Koo BK,
Kim HC, et al. The effects of resistance training
on muscle and body fat mass and muscle
strength in type 2 diabetic women. Korean diabetes
journal. 2010; 34:101-10.
29. Thiebaud RS, Loenneke JP, Fahs CA, Rossow
LM, Kim D, Abe T, Anderson MA, Young
KC, Bemben DA, Bemben MG. The effects of
elastic band resistance training combined with
blood flow restriction on strength, total bonefree
lean body mass and muscle thickness in
postmenopausal women. Clinical physiology
and functional imaging. 2013; 33:344-52.
30. Khoram jah M, Sarmadiyn M. Effects 10
Weeks of Aerobic Training on Serum Levels of
Estradiol and Percent Body Fat in Sedentary
Postmenopausal Overweight Women. Breast
diseases. 2015; 2 (8): 43-35.
31. Key T, Appleby P, Barnes I, Reeves G. Endogenous
sex hormones and breast cancer in
postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine
prospective studies. Journal of the National
Cancer Institute. 2002; 94:606-16.
32. Friedenreich CM. Physical activity and
breast cancer risk: the effect of menopausal
status. Exercise and sport sciences reviews.
2004; 32:180-4.
33. Consitt LA, Copeland JL, Tremblay MS. Endogenous
anabolic hormone responses to endurance
versus resistance exercise and training
in women. Sports Medicine. 2002; 32:1-22.
34. Häkkinen K, Pakarinen A, Kyröläinen H,
Cheng S, Kim DH, Komi PV. Neuromuscular
adaptations and serum hormones in females
during prolonged power training. International
Journal of Sports Medicine. 1990; 11:91-8.
35. Lee JS, LaCroix AZ, Wu L, Cauley JA, Jackson RD, Kooperberg C, et al. Associations of
serum sex hormone-binding globulin and sex
hormone concentrations with hip fracture risk
in postmenopausal women. The Journal of
Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2008;
93: 1796-803.
36. Kim C, Pi-Sunyer X, Barrett-Connor E,
Stentz FB, Murphy MB, Kong S, et al. Diabetes
Prevention Program Research Group. Sex hormone
binding globulin and sex steroids among
premenopausal women in the diabetes prevention
program. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology
& Metabolism. 2013; 98:3049-57.
37. Wang F, Vihma V, Soronen J, Turpeinen U,
Hämäläinen E, Savolainen-Peltonen H, et al.
17β-estradiol and estradiol fatty acyl esters
and estrogen-converting enzyme expression in
adipose tissue in obese men and women. The
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.
2013; 98:4923-31.
38. Monninkhof EM, Velthuis MJ, Peeters PH,
Twisk JW, Schuit AJ. Effect of exercise on postmenopausal
sex hormone levels and role of
body fat: a randomized controlled trial. Journal
of clinical oncology. 2009; 27: 4492-9.
39. Figueroa A, Going SB, Milliken LA, Blew
RM, Sharp S, Teixeira PJ, Lohman TG. Effects
of exercise training and hormone replacement
therapy on lean and fat mass in postmenopausal
women. The Journals of Gerontology Series
A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences.
2003; 58:266-70.
40. Smith AJ, Phipps WR, Arikawa AY,
O›Dougherty M, Kaufman B, Thomas W, et al. Effects of aerobic exercise on premenopausal
sex hormone levels: results of the WISER
study, a randomized clinical trial in healthy,
sedentary, eumenorrheic women. Cancer Epidemiology
and Prevention Biomarkers. 2011; 1098-1107.