Document Type : original article
1 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, School of Literature and Humanities, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran.
Purpose: Since obesity and overweight have dramatically increased in recent years, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise training in normobaric hypoxia and normoxia conditions on the resting levels of the VEGF, body composition, and the VO2max among Overweight / Obesity Women.
Methods: Twenty-four overweight women voluntarily agreed to take part in the study following the related announcement. The Mean±SD of their age, height, and weight were, respectively, 28.25 ± 3.7 (years), 161.8 ± 3.01 (cm), and 78.64 ± 7.18 (kg). The normobaric hypoxic training group performed aerobic training in hypoxic tents for six weeks, three sessions per week (with 60% of the maximum heart rate), and the normoxic group (control group) performed aerobic training for the same period of time as the hypoxic group. The training program included a 5-minute warm-up following 20 minutes of exercise at 60% of the maximum heart rate for the first week; every week, five minutes were added to the total exercise time.
Results: The results of comparing pre- and post-exercise changes in body composition indexes for the normobaric hypoxic and normoxic groups indicated that changes in weight (p=0.165) and BMI (p= 0.191) were not significantly different, but the changes in fat percentage (p=0.022) and waist (p = 0.031) were significantly different between the two groups. The changes in the maximal oxygen consumption (p= 0.008) and the VEGF (p < 0.001) following six weeks of training also differed across groups.
Conclusion: The significanlty larger increase in the resting levels of the VEGF in normobaric hypoxia conditions could indicate the importance of physical activity in such conditions in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and vascular endothelial function among overweight people.
 Tsai HH, Chang SC, Chou CH, Weng TP, Hsu CC, Wang JS. Exercise Training Alleviates Hypoxia-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Lymphocytes of Sedentary Males. Sci Rep. 2016;6:35170.
 Suhr F, Brixius K, de Marées M, Bölck B, Kleinöder H, Achtzehn S, et al. Effects of short-term vibration and hypoxia during high-intensity cycling exercise on circulating levels of angiogenic regulators in humans. Journal of applied physiology. 2007;103(2):474-83.
 Asano, Kaneoka, Nomura, Sone, Tsurumaru, Yamashita, et al. Increase in serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels during altitude training. Acta physiologica Scandinavica.1998;162(4):455-9.
 Pedlar CR, Whyte GP, Godfrey RJ. Pre-acclimation to exercise in normobaric hypoxia. European Journal of Sport Science. 2008;8(1):15-21.
 Pirouz M, Nourshahi M. The effect of eight weeks training in hypoxia-normobaric and normal situation on serum VEGF, erythropoietin concentration, fatigue index and VO2max. 2013.
 Sherpa LY, Stigum H, Chongsuvivatwong V, Thelle DS, Bjertness E. Obesity in Tibetans aged 30-70 living at different altitudes under the north and south faces of Mt. Everest. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2010;7(4):1670-80.
 Cao Y. Angiogenesis and Vascular Functions in Modulation of Obesity, Adipose Metabolism, and Insulin Sensitivity. Cell metabolism. 2013;18(4):478-89.
 Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Westerterp KR, Rubbens M, Verwegen CR, Richelet J-P, Gardette B. Appetite at “high altitude”[Operation Everest III (Comex-’97)] : a simulated ascent of Mount Everest. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1999;87(1):391-9.
 Khalid M. The association between strenuous physical activity and obesity in a high and low altitude populations in southern Saudi Arabia. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders: journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 1995;19(11):776-80.
 Prior BM, Yang H, Terjung RL. What makes vessels grow with exercise training? Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004;97(3):1119-28.
 Brixius K, Schoenberger S, Ladage D, Knigge H, Falkowski G, Hellmich M, et al. Longterm Endurance Exercise decreases the Antiangiogenic Endostatin Signaling in adipose men aged between 50-60 years. British journal of sports medicine. 2007.
 Disanzo BL, You T. Effects of exercise training on indicators of adipose tissue angiogenesis and hypoxia in obese rats. Metabolism. 2014;63(4):452-5.
 Park J, Nakamura Y, Kwon Y, Park H, Kim E, Park S. The effect of combined exercise training on carotid artery
structure and function, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in obese older women. Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine. 2010;59(5):495-504.
 Jackson A, Pollock M. Generalized equations for predicting body density of men. British Journal of Nutrition. 1978;40(03):497-504.
 Siri WE. The gross composition of the body. Adv Biol Med Phys. 1956;4:239-80.
 Warren BL, Loftin M, Sothern M, Udall J. Comparison of VO2 peak during treadmill and cycle ergometry in severely overweight youth. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2004.
 De Smet S, van Herpt P, D'Hulst G, Van Thienen R, Van Leemputte M, Hespel P. Physiological Adaptations to Hypoxic vs. Normoxic Training during Intermittent Living High. Front Physiol. 2017;8:347.
 Gavin TP, Stallings HW, Zwetsloot KA, Westerkamp LM, Ryan NA, Moore RA, et al. Lower capillary density but no difference in VEGF expression in obese vs.lean young skeletal muscle in humans. Journal of applied physiology. 2005;98(1):315-21.
 Doupis J, Rahangdale S, Gnardellis C, Pena SE, Malhotra A, Veves A. Effects of diabetes and obesity on vascular reactivity, inflammatory cytokines, and growth factors. Obesity. 2011;19(4):729-35.
 Silha J, Krsek M, Sucharda P, Murphy L. Angiogenic factors are elevated in overweight and obese individuals. International journal of obesity. 2005;29(11):1308.
 Sinex JA, Chapman RF. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2015;4(4):325-32.
 Sumi D, Kojima C, Goto K. Impact of Endurance Exercise in Hypoxia on Muscle Damage, Inflammatory and Performance Responses. J Strength Cond Res. 2017.
 Bohner JD, Hoffman JR, McCormack W, Scanlon TC, Townsend JR, Stout JR, et al. Moderate Altitude Affects High Intensity Running Performance in a Collegiate Women’s Soccer Game. Journal of human kinetics. 2015;47(1):147-54.
 Vogt M, Hoppeler H. Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance? Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 2010;52(6):525-33.
 Netzer NC, Chytra R, Küpper T. Low intense physical exercise in normobaric hypoxia leads to more weight loss in obese people than low intense physical exercise in normobaric sham hypoxia. Sleep and Breathing. 2008;12(2):129-34.
 Wiesner S, Haufe S, Engeli S, Mutschler H, Haas U, Luft FC, et al. Influences of normobaric hypoxia training on physical fitness and metabolic risk markers in overweight to obese subjects. Obesity. 2010;18(1):116-20.
 Abe T, Kitaoka Y, Kikuchi DM, Takeda K, Numata O, Takemasa T. High-intensity interval training-induced metabolic
adaptation coupled with an increase in Hif-1alpha and glycolytic protein expression. J Appl Physiol (1985).
 Wu LH, Chang SC, Fu TC, Huang CH, Wang JS. High-intensity Interval Training Improves Mitochondrial Function and Suppresses Thrombin Generation in Platelets undergoing Hypoxic Stress. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):4191.