Document Type : original article


1 Department of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercise, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

2 MSc.of Exercise Physiology, Departement of Exercise Physiology, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Purpose: Desirable effects of exercise on cardiovascular health in pediatrics due to different physiology than other ages, has not been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to effect of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on cardiac structural and functional parameters in pediatrics.
Methods: Twenty healthy pediatrics (without regular training background) with average age of 10-12 years participated in this study. Subjects were randomized to one of two groups: control (n=10) and exercise (n=10). The subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise training up to 55 -70% of heart rate reserve, three sessions per week, 25 to min per session for 12 weeks. The cardiac structural and functional parameters were measured with Echocardiography system at baseline and end of 12 week exercise training. The research data were analyzed using independent t- test and Paired t- test (p < 0.05).
Results: In the exercise group in comparison to the control group and baseline conditions LVEDd, LVmass, LVEDV and VO2peak significantly increased (p < 0.05) and resting heart rate decreased (p < 0.05) after 12 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise.
Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrates that after 12 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise some of cardiac structural and functional parameters in pediatrics will improve, As these changes can have an effective role in improvement of Pediatrics cardiovascular system.


[1] Pellicia ABJ, Maron G. Athlete's heart in women. AM J. Sport Med. 1999; 276: 210 - 215.
[2] Obert P, Nottin S, Baquet G, Thevenet D, Gamelin FX, Berthoin S. Two months of endurance training does not alter diastolic function evaluated by TDI in 9-11 year-old boys and girls.Br J Sports Med. 2009; 43:132-5.
[3] da Silva CC1, Pereira LM, Cardoso JR, Moore JP, Nakamura FY. The effect of physical training on heart rate variability in healthy children: a systematic review with meta- analysis. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2014 May;26(2):147-58.
[4] D’Andea A, Caso P, Scarasfile R, Salerno G, De Corato G, Mita C, et al. Biventricular myocardial adaptation to different training protocols in competitive master athletes. Int J Cardiol. 2007; 115:3423-49.
[5] Obert P, Mandigout S, Vinet A, N’Guyen LD, Stecken F, Courteix D.Effect of aerobic training and detraining on left ventricular dimensions and diastolic function in prepubertal boys and girls.Int J Sports Med. 2001; 22:90-6
[6] Werner W, Sharon A. Fitness and wellness, 8th ed. Wadsworth 2009.p. 25-26.
[7] Gottdiener JS, Bednarz J, Devereux R, Gardin J, Klein A, Manning WJ, et al. American society of echocardiography recommendations for use of echocardiography in clinical trials. J Am SocEchocardiogr. 2004; 17:1086-1119.
[8] Fredriksen PM1, Kahrs N, Blaasvaer S, Sigurdsen E, Gundersen O, Roeksund O, Norgaand G, Vik JT, Soerbye O, Ingjer E, Thaulow E. Effect of physical training in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease. Cardiol Young. 2000 Mar;10(2):107-14.
[9] Denise L. Smith, Bo Fernhall. Advanced cardiovascular
exercise physiology. Vol.1, Human kinetics, Print 1, 2011. P.13-15.
[10] Feigenbaum H, Armstrong W, Ryan T. Feigenbaum,s echocardiography. Vol.1, Lippincott Williams &Wilkins, Print 7, 2005. P. 27-29
[11] Tartibiyan B, Khorshii M. Predication of physiological indexes in exercise. Vol.1, Teimurzade publication, Print 1, 2005. P. 185-186. .[In Persian]
[12] Vineranu D, Florescu N, Culthorpe N, Ann C, Tweddel, Micheal R. et al. Left ventricular long-axis diastolic function is augmented in the hearts of endurance trained compared with strength-trained athletes. Clin Sci. 2002; 103:249-257.
[13] Hubert Krysztofiak, Łukasz A. Małek, Marcel Młyńczak, Andrzej Folga, Wojciech Braksator. Comparison of echocardiographic linear dimensions for male and female child and adolescent athletes with published pediatric normative data. PLoS One, 2018; t 11;13(10).
[14] Seyma Kayali, Fatma Tuba Yildirim. Echocardiographic assessment of children participating in regular sports training. North Clin Istanb. 2018; 10.14744.
[15] Duppen N1, Takken T, Hopman MT, ten Harkel AD, Dulfer K, Utens EM, Helbing WA. Systematic review of the effects of physical exercise training programmes in children and young adults with congenital heart disease. Int J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 3;168 (3):1779-87.
[16] JC, Eisenmann P, Katzmarzyk T. GermianTeriault. Thomas M.K. Song Robert M. Malina Claude Bouchard. Cardiac dimensions, physical activity, and submaximal working capacity in youth of the Québec Family Study. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000; 81:40-46.
[17] Bendiksen M1, Williams CA, Hornstrup T, Clausen H, Kloppenborg J, Shumikhin D, Brito J, Horton J, Barene S, Jackman SR, Krustrup P. Heart rate response and fitness effects of various types of physical education for 8- to 9-yearold schoolchildren. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(8):861-9.
[18] Koç M, Bozkurt A, Akpinar O, Ergen N, Acartürk E. Right and left ventricular adaptation to training determined by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging in young endurance athletes. Acta Cardiol. 2007; 62:13-8.
[19] Henriksen E, Sundstedt M, Hedberg P. Left ventricular end-diastolic geometrical adjustments during exercise in endurance athletes. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2008; 28:76-80.
[20] Hildick-Smith DJ, Shapiro LM. Echocardiographic differentiation of pathological and physiological left ventricular hypertrophy. Heart. 2001; 85:615-9.
[21] King GJ, Murphy RT, Almuntaser I, Bennett K, Ho E, Brown AS. Alterations in myocardial stiffness in elite athletes assessed by a new Doppler index. Heart. 2008; 94:1254-1255.
[22] Biddle SJ1, Gorely T, Stensel DJ. Health-enhancing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. J Sports Sci. 2004 Aug;22(8):679-701.
[23] Fallahi A, Nejatian M, Gaeini A A, Kordi M R and Samadi A. Comparison of two methods of continuous aerobic
exercise on resting heart rate and recovery of selected Stavby minutes, 1, 2 and 3 patients. J Med Council I Repub I. 1390;
52:29 -37. [24] Shi, Jian R, Selig S. Cardiac structure and function in young endurance athletes and nonathletes. J exersci fitness. 2005; 24:74-80.
[25] Makan J, Sharma S, Firoozi S, Whyte G, Jackson PG, McKenna WJ. Physiological upper limits of ventricular cavity size in highly trained adolescent athletes. Heart. 2005; 91:495-499.
[26] Ciolac EG, Guimarães GV, D Avila VM, et al. Acute effects of continuous and interval aerobic exercise on 24-h
ambulatory blood pressure in long-term treated hypertensive patients. Int J Cardiol. 2009; 133:381-387.
[27] Spina RJ, Rashid S, Dávila-Román VG, Ehsani AA. Adaptations in beta-adrenergic cardiovascular responses
to training in older women. J Appl Physiol. 2000; 89:2300- 2305.
[28] Oli N1,2, Vaidya A2, Eiben G3, Krettek A1,3,4. Effectiveness of health promotion regarding diet and physical
activity among Nepalese mothers and their young children: The Heart-Health Associated Research, Dissemination, and
Intervention in the Community (HARDIC) trial. Glob Health Action. 2019;12(1):1670033.
[29] Park SK, Park JH, Kwon YC, Yoon MS, Kim CS. The effect of long-term aerobic exercise on maximal oxygen consumption, left ventricular function and serum lipids in elderly women. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2003; 22:11-7.