Document Type : original article


1 Department of physical education. Kermanshah branch, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of physical education, Kangavar branch, Islamic Azad University, Kangavar, Iran


Purpose: Endothelial dysfunction is the fastest symptom of vascular dysfunction in obese individuals also the onset of pre-hypertension development and along with lipid profiles can lead to dangerous cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks circuit resistance training (CRT) on some endothelial markers, blood pressure and lipid profiles in pre-hypertensive obese women.
Methods: For this purpose, 24 pre-hypertensive obese women (age 44.73 ± 4.43 years, body max index 32.39 ± 3.8kg/m2, systolic blood pressure 13.21 ± 0.61 and diastolic 8.65 ± 0.33 mmHg) were randomly assigned to CRT and Control groups. CRT group performed circuit resistance training for eight weeks, three sessions per week and each session was 50 to 60 minutes. Resistance movements performs in the form of three circles and nine stations, including four upper body movements (chest press, lateral pull down, seated cable row, biceps cable curl) and three lower body movements (leg press, seated leg extension, leg curl), and two core-body movements (crunch and back extension) with 12-15 repetitions, which according to the recommendations of the American Heart Association was 40% 1RM for upper body and 60% 1RM for lower body movements. Control group didn’t have any training activities during the intervention. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements and blood samples were collected 48 hours before the intervention and 48 hours after the last training session.
Results: The results showed that eight weeks of circuit resistance training can significantly reduce body fat percentage (P = 0.005), waist to hip ratio (P = 0.043), systolic (P = 0.001) and diastolic (P = 0.002) blood pressure and triglycerides (P = 0.043) and significantly increase nitric oxide levels (P= 0.008).
Conclusion: It seems that eight weeks of CRT can decrease blood pressure by decline some lipid profile and also increase in nitric oxide levels by increase in capillary network in active muscles, and vascular flexibility.


  1. Singer, P.S., Updates on Hypertension and New Guidelines. Adv pediatr, 2019. 66: p. 177-187.
  2. David Martinez-Gomez , C.J.L., Mark Hamer , Veronica Cabanas-Sanchez , Esther Garcia-Esquinas, Ellen Struijk, Kabir P Sadarangani, Physical activity without weight loss reduces the development of cardiovascular disease risk factors - a prospective cohort study of more than one hundred thousand adults. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 2019. 62(6): p. 522-530.
  3. Seravalle, G. and G. Grassi, Obesity and hypertension. Pharmacol Res, 2017. 122: p. 1-7.
  4. M, I.M.C., Mechanisms of ET-1-induced endothelial dysfunction. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 2007. 50: p. 621-628.
  5. Ahmadi Mozhgan , A.D.A., Shadmehri Saeedeh , Agghaei Bahmanbeglu Neda Compare the effect of eight weeks aerobic and resistance training on Oxidant, antioxidant status and lipid profile in obese girls. Sport and exercise physiology, 2018. 11(1): p. 139-152. [In Persian]
  6. Amit V. Jaiswal, A.H.K., Sambhaji B. Gunjal, Prerna M. Tawde, Aashirwad A. Mahajan,Subhash M. Khatri, Effectiveness of Interval Training Versus Circuit Training Exercises on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Rate of Perceived Exertion in Individuals with Prehypertension. International journal of health sience and research, 2015. 5(10): p. 148-156.
  7. Sharabiani S, R.H., Motamedi P, Dehkhoda MR, Kaviani M, The Effect of 8 Weeks of Combined Training on Serum Adropin and Nitric Oxide in Hypertensive Postmenopausal Women. Sport physiology and management investigations, 2018. 11(1): p. 129-143. [In Persian]
  8. Allyson K. Getty, T.R.W., Lauren N. Chavis ,et al, Effects of circuit exercise training on vascular health and blood pressure. Preventive Medicine Reports 2018. 10: p. 106-112.
  9. Cornelissen VA, F.R., Coeckelberghs E, Vanhees L, Impact of Resistance Training on Blood Pressure and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors. A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials. Hypertension 2011. 58(5): p. 950-958.
  10. Gonzales JU, T.B., Thistlethwaite JR, Scheuermann BW., Association between exercise hemodynamics and changes in local vascular function following acute exercise. . Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2010. 36(1): p. 137-144.
  11. Queiroz, A.C., H. Kanegusuku, and C.L. Forjaz, Effects of resistance training on blood pressure in the elderly. Arq Bras Cardiol, 2010. 95(1): p. 135-140.
  12. Son WM, S.K., Cho JM, Park SY, Combined exercise reduces arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and blood markers for cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with hypertension. Menopause 2017. 24(3): p. 262-268.
  13. Rosety, I., et al., (Circuit resistance training improved endothelial dysfunction in obese aged women). Nutr Hosp, 2016. 33(1): p. 17.
  14. Sanian Hassan, M.H., Peerii Maghsoud The Effect of Circuit Resistance Training on Plasma Concentration of Endothelin-1, Nitric Oxide and Vascular Diameter in Elderly Men. J Clin Res Paramed Sci, 2019: p.:e80932.
  15. Nyberg M, M.S., Hellsten Y, Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. . Acta Physiol, 2013. 207(3): p. 524-535.
  16. Brzycki, M., Strength testing-predicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue. Joperd, 1993. 68: p. 88-90.
  17. Williams MA, H.W., Ades PA, Amsterdam EA, Bittner V, Franklin BA,Gulanick M, Laing ST, Stewart KJ., Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on clinical cardiology and council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism. Circulation, 2007. 116: p. 572-584.
  18. Heffernan KS, Y.E., Sharman JE, Davies JE, Shih YT, Chen CH, Fernhall B, Jae SY, Resistance exercise training reduces arterial reservoir pressure in older adults with prehypertension and hypertension. Hypertens Res. , 2013. 36(5): p. 422-427.
  19. Omorede E Osayande , G.N.A., Emmanuel O Obuzor, A comparative study of different body fat measuring instruments. Niger J Physiol Sci, 2018. 30(2): p. 125-128.
  20. American heart association, Heart disease and stroke statistics-2009 Update. A report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation, 2009. 119: p. e21-e181.
  21. Brzycki, M., A Practical Approach To Strength Training. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-1-57028-018-4, 1998.
  22. Movahed Ali, R.P., Nabipour Iraj, et al, Efficacy and Safety of Resveratrol in Type 1 Diabetes Patients: A Two-Month Preliminary Exploratory Trial. nutrients, 2020. 12(1): p. 161.
  23. Rosety, M.A., et al., A short-term circuit resistance programme reduced epicardial fat in obese aged women. Nutr Hosp, 2015. 32(5): p. 2193-7.
  24. Salvand GH, N.M., Shakerian S, The effect of 12 weeks of circuit resistance training course on some of the inflammatory factors in obese non-alcoholic fatty liver men. Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences 2019. 27(1): p. 1128-1140. [In Persian]
  25. Afshoun Pour M, H.A., Ranjbar R, The Impact of Circuit Resistance Exercise Training on Metabolic Parameters in Type 2 Diabetics Men Jundishapur Sci Med J 2016. 15(2): p. 125-138. [In Persian]
  26. Vikram, N.L., AN. Misra,A.  et al., Waist-to-Height Ratio Compared to Standard Obesity Measures as Predictor of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Asian Indians in North India. Metabolic syndrome and disorders, 2016. 14(10): p. 1-9.
  27. Mehdi zade R, H.S., The effect of resistance training on indices of lung and body composition in obese and overweight women with type 2 diabetes. Journal of sport biosiences, 2016. 7(4): p. 563-578. [In Persian]
  28. Marcos-Pardo, P.J.O.-C., F. J.Gea-Garcia, G. M.Menayo-Antunez, R.Gonzalez-Galvez, N. Vale, R. G. S. Martinez-Rodriguez, A., Effects of a moderate-to-high intensity resistance circuit training on fat mass, functional capacity, muscular strength, and quality of life in elderly: A randomized controlled trial. Sci Rep, 2019. 9(1): p. 7830.
  29. Soori R, K.N., Rezaeian N, Montazeri H, Effects of Resistance and Endurance Training on Coronary Heart Disease Biomarker in Sedentary Obese Women. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2011. 13(2): p. 179-228. [In Persian]
  30. Lynnette M. Jones .Lee Stoner J Chris Baldi , B.M., Circuit resistance training and cardiovascular health in breast cancer survivors. European Journal of cancer care, 2020. 00:e13231.
  31. de Sousa, E.C., et al., Resistance training alone reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals: meta-analysis. Hypertens Res, 2017. 40(11): p. 927-931.
  32. N. Behpour, F.M., V. Tadibi, Effect of Eight Weeks Resistance Training with Citrulline-Malate Supplementation on Blood Pressure, Serum Nitric Oxide and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Resting Serum and Response to Physical Activity in Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension. Sport Physiology, 2020. 11(44): p. 55-72. [In Persian]
  33. Daryanoosh F, A.N., Sherafati Moghadam M, Dadvand S, The Effect of Resistance Training on Serum Cardiotrophin-1 Levels, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Elderly Women. Biannual JAHSSP, 2016. 3(2): p. 11-16.
  34. Daryanoosh F, A.N., Sherafati Moghadam M, Dadvand SH, The Effect of Resistance Training on Serum Cardiotrophin-1 Levels, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Elderly Women. Biannual JAHSSP, 2016. 3(2): p. 11-16. [In Persian]
  35. Kolahdouzi, S.B., M. Kani-Golzar, F. A. Saeidi, A. Jabbour, G. et al, Progressive circuit resistance training improves inflammatory biomarkers and insulin resistance in obese men. Physiol Behav, 2019. 205: p. 15-21.
  36. Dianatinasab A, K.R., Bahramian M, Bagheri-Hosseinabadi Z, Vaismoradi M, Fararouei M ,Amanat S, The effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercises on the plasma irisin levels, HOMA-IR, and lipid profiles in women with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. journal ofof Exercise Science & Fitness 2020. 18: p. 168-176.
  37. Haghighi AH , H.n.M., Ravasi AS, The Effect of Resistance Training on Metabolic Profile and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Men. journal of sport biosiences, 2009. 1(3): p. 5-19. [In Persian]
  38. Crisieli M Tomeleri , A.S.R., Mariana F Souza , et al, Resistance training improves inflammatory level, lipid and glycemic profiles in obese older women: A randomized controlled trial. Exp Gerontol, 2016. 84: p. 80-87.
  39. Heydarpour P , F.S., Haghighi Sh Resistance Training Effect on Lipid Profile and Body Fat Percentage of Premenopausal Women. JUNDISHAPUR JOURNAL OF CHRONIC DISEASE CARE, 2015. 4(2): p. e28339. doi: 10.5812/jjcdc.28339. [In Persian]
  40. Banz WJ, M.M., Thompson WG, Bassett DR, Moore Wayne , Ashraf Muhammad , Keefer D J , Zemel M B Effect of resistance versus aerobic training on coronery artery diseases risk factors. Exp Physiol, 2003. 228: p. 434-440.
  41. Tábata de Paula Facioli, M.C.B., Eloisa Maria Gatti Regueiro Effect of Physical Training on Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients with Arterial Hypertension: An Integrative Review. International Journal of Cardiovascular Sciences, 2021. ISSN 2359-4802.
  42. Maeda S, M.T., Iemitsu M, Sugawara J, Nagata Y, Goto K, Resistance exercise training reduces plasma endothelin-1 concentration in healthy young humans. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 2011. 44: p. 443-446.
  43. Ciccolo JT, C.L., Krupel KL, Longval JL., The role of resistance training in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. Am J Lifestyle Med., 2009. 4: p. 293-308.
  44. B, D.L.f., Advance cardiovascular exercise physiology. Human kinetics 2011: p. 91-210.
  45. Meada s, m.t., lemitsu m, sugawara j, nagata y, goto k, resistance exercise training reduces plasma endothelin_1". Japan sport, 2011. 7(3): p. 20-31.
  46. Seiji m, s.j., motoyuki j, Weight loss reduces plasma endothelin_1". I baraki japan sport, 2011. 1(3): p. 305-321.
  47. Anthony j, l.a., Michael d, "the effects of aging and exercise training on endothelin_1 vasoconstrictor responses in rat. Cardiovascular research, 2005. 66: p. 393-401.