Document Type : original article
Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Human Sciences, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training with Nigella Sativa supplementation on lipid profile, blood sugar and body composition of overweight young women.
Materials and Methods: The present study is in the form of a semi-experimental design in a double-blind on 48 overweight young women of NEISHABOUR city with a mean and standard deviation of age 36.41 ± 3.51 and body mass index of 28.704 ± 0.79. kg/m2. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups. Five people refused to continue cooperation due to some reasons and finally there were four groups including exercise and supplement (n=10), exercise and placebo (n=9), supplement (n=12) and placebo (n=12). Two exercise groups trained for six weeks, three sessions per week with an intensity of 85 to 95 percent of the maximum heart rate (HRmax). In addition to all of the groups consumed one oil capsule containing 1000 mg of Nigella Sativa or placebo (paraffin oil) before lunch daily. The Supplement and placebo group did not do any regular exercise. Anthropometric measurements and blood samples were taken on two occasions, pre-test and post-test. Fasting blood samples were collected from brachial vein to evaluate lipid profile and blood sugar levels. In order to check the normality of the data distribution, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used. To analyze the data and report them, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tests and SIDAK post hoc test were used at a significance level of 0.05.
Results: The results of the present research did not show a significant difference between exercise and supplement, exercise and placebo groups compared to supplement and placebo groups after six weeks in total cholesterol (p=0.332), triglyceride (p=0.928), high-density lipoprotein (p=0.86), low density lipoprotein (p=0.393) and fasting blood sugar (p=0.054). The results of the SIDAK post hoc test showed that, in total, the measures taken in the experimental groups have led to a decrease in body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat percentage. In terms of body mass index and body fat percentage, the exercise and placebo groups had better performance, and in terms of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, the supplement group had better performance, but these differences were not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) and all experimental groups only had a better score body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body fat percentage indices compared to the control group (placebo) (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: It seems HIIT and Nigella Sativa supplementation, each one can be effective in improving the body composition of overweight young women. However, in this study, HIIT and Nigella Sativa supplementation did not have a significant effect on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar, so it is suggested that more research should be done.
- Moradi A, Hosseini SA, Nikbakht M. Effect of Swimming Training and Crocin Consumption on Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway in Muscle Tissue of High-Fat Diet-induced Obese Rats. Middle East Journal of Rehabilitation and Health Studies. 2019;6(3).
- AlSaraj F, McDermott J, Cawood T, McAteer S, Ali M, Tormey W, et al. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with diabetes mellitus. Irish journal of medical science. 2009;178(3):309-13.
- Wang P, Su Z, Yuan W, Deng G, Li S. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Eryngium L.(Apiaceae). 2012.
- Ahmad A, Husain A, Mujeeb M, Khan SA, Najmi AK, Siddique NA, et al. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine. 2013;3.337-52.
- Sabzghabaee AM, Dianatkhah M, Sarrafzadegan N, Asgary S, Ghannadi A. Clinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. Med Arch. 2012;66(3):198-200.
- 6. Abdullah O B, Basil A A, Saleh A S. Effect of oral ingestion of Nigella sativa seeds on some blood parameters. 1997.
- Ibraheim Z. Effect of Nigella sativa seeds and total oil on some blood parameters in female volunteers. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2002;10(1):54-9. 1
- Bamosa A, Ali BA, Sowayan S. Effect of oral ingestion Nigella sativa seeds on some blood parameters. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 1997;5:126-9.
- Vedanarayanan MS, Krishnan N. Ayurvedic formulation of Liv-Pro-08 reduces nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats fed with high-fat diet. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies. 2011;4(4):236-41.
- Agbaria R, Gabarin A, Dahan A, Ben-Shabat S. Anticancer activity of Nigella sativa (black seed) and its relationship with the thermal processing and quinone composition of the seed. Drug design, development and therapy. 2015;9:3119.
- Le P, Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Elimadi A, Settaf A, Cherrah Y, Haddad P. The petroleum ether extracts of Nigella sativa seeds exert insulin sensitizing and lipid lowering action in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;94(2-3):251-9.
- Akova A, Ustun G. Activity and adsorption of lipase from Nigella sativa seeds on Celite at different pH values. Biotechnology Letters. 2000;22(5):355-9.
- Schmitt A, Maurus I, Rossner MJ, Röh A, Lembeck M, von Wilmsdorff M, et al. Effects of aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome, cardiorespiratory fitness, and symptoms in schizophrenia include decreased mortality. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2018;9:690.
- Whyte LJ, Gill JM, Cathcart AJ. Effect of 2 weeks of sprint interval training on health-related outcomes in sedentary overweight/obese men. Metabolism. 2010;59(10):1421-8.
- Cassidy S, Thoma C, Houghton D, Trenell MI. High-intensity interval training: a review of its impact on glucose control and cardiometabolic health. Diabetologia. 2017;60(1):7-23.
- Vakili J, Amirsasan R, Nourmohammadi O. The effect of four weeks HIIT training with ginseng supplementation on aerobic, anaerobic powers and body composition of Overweight and obese females. Physiology of Exercise and Physical Activity. 2019;12(2):45-54.
- Murawska-Cialowicz E, Wolanski P, Zuwala-Jagiello J, Feito Y, Petr M, Kokstejn J, et al. Effect of HIIT with Tabata Protocol on Serum Irisin, Physical Performance, and Body Composition in Men. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(10):3589.
- Rashidmayvan M, Mohammadshahi M, Seyedian SS, Haghighizadeh MH. The effect of Nigella sativa oil on serum levels of inflammatory markers, liver enzymes, lipid profile, insulin and fasting blood sugar in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. 2019;18(2):453-9.
- Safi S, Razmpoosh E, Fallahzadeh H, Mazaheri M, Abdollahi N, Nazari M, et al. The effect of Nigella sativa on appetite, anthropometric and body composition indices among overweight and obese women: A crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2021;57:102653.
- Mousavi SM, Sheikhi A, Varkaneh HK, Zarezadeh M, Rahmani J, Milajerdi A. Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation on obesity indices: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complementary therapies in medicine. 2018;38:48-57.
- Alkahtani SA, Byrne NM, Hills AP, King NA. Interval training intensity affects energy intake compensation in obese men. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2014;24(6):595-604.
- García JDJ, Almazán AA, Contreras FH, Diaz DC, Cuadros RF, Amat AM. Role of the exercise of high intensity intervals (HIIT) in health in the older adults: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. European Journal of Health Research:(EJHR). 2020;6(1):51-64.
- Russomando L, Bono V, Mancini A, Terracciano A, Cozzolino F, Imperlini E, et al. The Effects of Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate Intensity Continuous Training on Body Fat Percentage, Abdominal Circumference, BMI and VO2max in Overweight Subjects. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. 2020;5(2):41.
- Namazi N, Mahdavi R, Alizadeh M, Farajnia S. Oxidative stress responses to Nigella sativa oil concurrent with a low‐calorie diet in obese women: A randomized, double‐blind controlled clinical trial. Phytotherapy Research. 2015;29(11):1722-8.
- Fallah Huseini H, Amini M, Mohtashami R, Ghamarchehre M, Sadeqhi Z, Kianbakht S, et al. Blood pressure lowering effect of Nigella sativa L. seed oil in healthy volunteers: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical trial. Phytotherapy Research. 2013;27(12):1849-53.
- Asgary S, Sahebkar A, Goli-Malekabadi N. Ameliorative effects of Nigella sativa on dyslipidemia. Journal of endocrinological investigation. 2015;38(10):1039-46.
- Tjønna AE, Stølen TO, Bye A, Volden M, Slørdahl SA, Ødegård R, et al. Aerobic interval training reduces cardiovascular risk factors more than a multitreatment approach in overweight adolescents. Clinical science. 2009;116(4):317-26.
- Limbaugh JD, Wimer GS, Long LH, Baird WH. Body fatness, body core temperature, and heat loss during moderate-intensity exercise. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. 2013;84(11):1153-8.
- Bilski J, Teległów A, Zahradnik-Bilska J, Dembiński A, Warzecha Z. Effects of exercise on appetite and food intake regulation. Medicina Sportiva. 2009;13(2).
- Farzaneh E, Nia FR, Mehrtash M, Mirmoeini FS, Jalilvand M. The effects of 8-week Nigella sativa supplementation and aerobic training on lipid profile and VO2 max in sedentary overweight females. International journal of preventive medicine. 2014;5(2):210.
- Hallajzadeh J, Milajerdi A, Mobini M, Amirani E, Azizi S, Nikkhah E, et al. Effects of Nigella sativa on glycemic control, lipid profiles, and biomarkers of inflammatory and oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Phytotherapy Research. 2020;34(10):2586-608.
- Ghosheh OA, Houdi AA, Crooks PA. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the pharmacologically active quinones and related compounds in the oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa L.). Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. 1999;19(5):757-62.
- Ibrahim RM, Hamdan NS, Mahmud R, Imam MU, Saini SM, Abd Rashid SN, et al. A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella Sativa seeds powder in menopausal women. Journal of translational medicine. 2014;12(1):1-7.
- Amini M, Fallah Huseini H, Mohtashami R, Sadeqhi Z, Ghamarchehre M. Hypolipidemic effects of Nigella sativa L. seeds oil in healthy volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2011;10(40):133-8.
- Mohtashami R, Amini M, Fallah Huseini H, Ghamarchehre M, Sadeqhi Z, Hajiagaee R, et al. Blood glucose lowering effects of Nigella sativa L. seeds oil in healthy volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Medicinal plants. 2011;10(39):90-4.
- Naharudin MN, Yusof A. The effect of 10 days of energy-deficit diet and high-intensity exercise training on the plasma high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) level among healthy collegiate males. European Journal of Sport Science. 2021:1-10.
- Hayes LD, Herbert P, Sculthorpe N, Grace F. High intensity interval training (HIIT) produces small improvements in fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance in sedentary older men but not masters athletes. Experimental Gerontology. 2020;140:111074.
- Kazemzadeh Y, Banaeifar A, Shirvani H, Gharaat A. The effect of high intensity interval training HIIT on body composition, lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in overweight young men. 2016.
- Buchan DS, Ollis S, Young JD, Cooper S-M, Shield JP, Baker JS. High intensity interval running enhances measures of physical fitness but not metabolic measures of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy adolescents. BMC public health. 2013;13(1):1-12.
- Zaer Ghodsi N, Zolfaghari MR, Fattah A. The impact of high intensity interval training on lipid profile, inflammatory markers and anthropometric parameters in inactive women. Medical Laboratory Journal. 2016;10(1):56-60.
- Khammassi M, Ouerghi N, Hadj-Taieb S, Feki M, Thivel D, Bouassida A. Impact of a 12-week high-intensity interval training without caloric restriction on body composition and lipid profile in sedentary healthy overweight/obese youth. Journal of exercise rehabilitation. 2018;14(1):118.
- Jane M-L, Ho C-C, Chen S-C, Huang Y-C, Lai C-H, Liaw Y-P. A Simple Method for Increasing High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: A Pilot Study of Combination Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2012.