Agreement among the energy expenditure prediction equations with the criterion model in the exhaustive treadmill test protocols

Document Type : original article


Purpose: The aim of this study was to survey the agreements between the energy expenditure prediction equations with the criterion model in the exhaustive treadmill test protocols in active young men. Methods: Fifty active young men were selected as subjects (Mean ± SD Age 21.04 ± 2.069 yrs., Height 176.78 ± 4.484 cm, Weight 70.11 ± 5.825 kg) and completed exhaustive treadmill test protocols. Bioenergetical variables during exhaustive protocols using respiratory gas analysis were collected at an interval of ten seconds. To estimate the energy cost and bioenergetical variables, ACSMv, Vander Walt, Pandolf, Léger and Epstein predictive equations for walking and running were considered. Bland-Altman graphical model and Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) statistical tests were used to evaluate the absolute agreement of the methods. Results: The results suggest that the Leger equation for running have high agreement with the criterion model (±1.96; CI = 95% -21.2 to 2.4 ml/kg/min; ICC= 0.89) And ACSM walking and running equations have middle agreement with the criterion model(Walking: ±1.96 ; 95% CI = -8.1 to +4.7 ml/kg/min , ICC= 0.4837 ; Running: ±1.96 ; 95% CI = -27.6 to -3.3 ml/kg/min, ICC: 0.4535). Conclusion: According to study results it could be concluded that the Leger equations for running and relatively ACSM walking and running equations estimating of VO2 among Iranian active young men can be used as an accurate alternative for the criterion method.


  1. Kenney WL, Wilmore J, Costill D. (2015).Physiology of Sport and Exercise 6th Edition: Human kinetics.
  2. Astorino T, Willey J, Kinnahan J, Larsson S, Welch H, Dalleck L.( 2005). Elucidating determinants of the plateau in oxygen consumption at o2max. British journal of sports medicine. 39(9):655-660.
  3. George JD, Paul SL, Hyde A, Bradshaw DI, Vehrs PR, Hager RL, et al. (2009). Prediction of maximum oxygen uptake using both exercise and non-exercise data. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 12-1:(1)13.
  4. Lee J-M, Bassett Jr DR, Thompson DL, Fitzhugh EC. (2011). Validation of the Cosmed Fitmate for prediction of maximal oxygen consumption. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 25(9):2573-2579.
  5. Glass S, Dwyer GB, Medicine ACoS. (2007). ACSM's metabolic calculations handbook: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  6. American College of Sports Medicine. (2013). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  7. Van der Walt W, Wyndham C. (1973). An equation for prediction of energy expenditure of walking and running. Journal of Applied Physiology. 34(5):559-563.
  8. Pandolf K, Givoni B, Goldman R. (1976). Predicting energy expenditure with loads while standing or walking very slowly. J. Appl. Physiol. 43:577-581.
  9. Leger L, Mercier D. (1984). "Gross energy cost of horizontal treadmill and track running". Sports medicine. 1(4):270-277.
  10. Epstein Y, Stroschein L, Pandolf K. (1987). Predicting metabolic cost of running with and without backpack loads. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. 56(5):495-500.
  11. Hall C, Figueroa A, Fernhall B, Kanaley JA. (2004). Energy expenditure of walking and running: comparison with prediction equations. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 36(12): 2128-2134.
  12. Koutlianos N, Dimitros E, Metaxas T, Cansiz M, Deligiannis A, Kouidi E. (2013). Indirect estimation of VO2max in athletes by ACSM’s equation: valid or not? Hippokratia. 17(2):136.
  13. Magrani P, Pompeu FAMS. (2010). Equations for predicting aerobic power (VO2) of young Brazilian adults. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia. 94(6):763-770.
  14. Brutsaert TD, Parra EJ, Shriver MD, Gamboa A, Palacios J-A, Rivera M, et al. (2003). Spanish genetic admixture is associated with larger VO2 max decrement from sea level to 4,338 m in Peruvian Quechua. Journal of applied physiology. 95(2):519-528.
  15. Siahkouhian M, Hedayatneja M. (2010). Correlations of anthropometric and body composition variables with the performance of young elite weightlifters. Journal of Human Kinetics. 25:125-31.
  16. American College of Sports Medicine. (1991). Guidelines for graded exercise testing and training. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.
  17. Siahkouhian M, Meamarbashi A. (2013). Advanced methodological approach in determination of the heart rate deflection point: S. Dmax versus L. Dmax methods. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. 53(1):27-33.
  18. Hofmann, P, Von Duvillard. S. P, et al. (2001). "Heart rate performance curve deflection." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 33:1726 -1737
  19. Bland JM, Altman DG. (1999). Measuring agreement in method comparison studies. Statistical methods in medical research. 8(2): 135-160.
  20. Bartko JJ. (1966). The intraclass correlation coefficient as a measure of reliability. Psychological reports. 19(1):3-11.
  21. Figueroa MA, Wicke J, Manning J, Escamilla P, Santillo N, Wolkstein J, et al. (2012). Validation of ACSM metabolic equations in an anti-gravity environment: A pilot study. International Journal of Applied. 2(7).
  22. Vinet A, Le Gallais D, Bouges S, Bernard P, Poulain M, Varray A, et al. (2002). Prediction of VO (2peak) in wheelchair-dependent athletes from the adapted Leger and Boucher test. Spinal Cord. 40(10):507-512.
  23. Weyand. P, Smith . R, Schultz. N,et al. (2013). Predicting metabolic rate across walking speed: one fit for all body sizes? The Journal of Appl Physiol 115: 1332–1342
  24. George JD, Bradshaw DI, Hyde A, Vehrs PR, Hager RL, Yanowitz FG. (2007). A maximal graded exercise test to accurately predict VO2max in 18–65-year-old adults. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 11(3):149-60.
  25. Marsh CE. (2012). Evaluation of the American College of Sports Medicine submaximal treadmill running test for predicting VO2max. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 26(2): 548-554.
  26. Cunha FA, Catalao RP, Midgley AW, Gurgel J, Porto F, Farinatti PT. (2012). Do the speeds defined by the American College of Sports Medicine metabolic equation for running produce target energy expenditures during isocaloric exercise bouts? European journal of applied physiology. 112(8):3019-26.
  27. Agiovlasitis S, Motl RW, Fernhall B. (2010). Prediction of oxygen uptake during level treadmill walking in people with multiple sclerosis. Journal of rehabilitation medicine. 42(7):650-5.
  28. Nieman DC. (2003). Exercise testing and prescription: a health related approach: McGraw-Hill Companies. 63-65.
  29. Siahkouhian M, H. F. (2011). "Applied cardiorespiratory fitness tests
  30. Pivarnik JM, Bray MS, Hergenroeder AC, Hill RB, Wong WW. (1995). Ethnicity affects aerobic fitness in US adolescent girls. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 27(12):1635-8.
  31. Vsetulova E, Bunc V. (2003). Effect of body composition on physical fitness and functional capacity in obese women. Casopis lekaru ceskych. 143(11):756-60; discussion 60-1.
  • Receive Date: 15 February 2016
  • Revise Date: 22 April 2024
  • Accept Date: 31 December 2020
  • First Publish Date: 31 December 2020
  • Publish Date: 21 May 2016