Document Type : original article
shahid beheshti university
Purpose: Muscle strength is needed to perform many movements and skills in football such as speed decreasing, shooting, dribbling, rotating, and jumping. Several studies shown that lower limb muscle strength can increase the quality of exercise skills. But, few studies have compared the strength of players at different levels. Therefore, the present study intends to investigate the strength of the isokinetic and isometric knee muscles of the elite, sub-elite and amateur football players of Iran.
Methods: The isokinetic strength of the knee muscles in 102 soccer players including 29 players of the national under-23 football team of Iran (elite), 29 players of 1st division of under-23 football team of Iran (sub-elite) and 44 players of 2nd division of under-23 football team of Tehran province (amateur) was measured for angular momentum of 60 and 180 degrees per second by the isokinetic Biodex. The isometric strength of flexor and extensor muscles of knee were measured at an angle of 60 degree.
Results: The results of the ANOVA test showed that elite player had superior strength of flexor and extensor knee muscles in both momentum angles of 60 and 180 degrees per second and flexor/ extensor isokinetic strength ratio at 180 degrees per second speed than sub-elite and amateur players significantly. However, there was no significant difference in the ratio of flexor/ extensor isokinetic strength ratio at 60 degrees per second.
Conclusions: Considering the results of the present study, it can be concluded that competition level affect the isokinetic and isometric strength of the knee muscles of young football players of Iran.
- Cometti G, Maffiuletti N, Pousson M, Chatard J-C, Maffulli N. Isokinetic strength and anaerobic power of elite, subelite and amateur French soccer players. International journal of sports medicine. 2001;22(01):45-51.
- Maly T, Zahalka F, Mala L. Muscular strength and strength asymmetries in elite and sub-elite professional soccer players. Sport Science. 2014;7(1):26-33.
- Morgan BE, Oberlander MA. An examination of injuries in major league soccer. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2001;29(4):426-30.
- Bangsbo J. Physiological demands. Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science Football (soccer): Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 1994. p. 43-58.
- Silvestre R, Kraemer WJ, West C, Judelson DA. Body composition and physical performance during a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's soccer season. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2006;20(4):962.
- Dunbar G, Power K. Fitness profiles of English professional and semi-professional soccer players using a battery of field tests. Science and football III. 1997:27-31.
- Metaxas TI, Koutlianos N, Sendelides T, Mandroukas A. Preseason physiological profile of soccer and basketball players in different divisions. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2009;23(6):1704-13.
- Metaxas TI, Koutlianos NA, Kouidi EJ, Deligiannis AP. Comparative study of field and laboratory tests for the evaluation of aerobic capacity in soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2005;19(1):79-84.
- Balsom P, Gaitanos G, Ekblom B, Sjödin B. Reduced oxygen availability during high intensity intermittent exercise impairs performance. Acta Physiologica. 1994;152(3):279-85.
- Askling C, Karlsson J, Thorstensson A. Hamstring injury occurrence in elite soccer players after preseason strength training with eccentric overload. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2003;13(4):244-50.
- Yamamoto T. Relationship between hamstring strains and leg muscle strength. A follow-up study of collegiate track and field athletes. The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness. 1993;33(2):194-9.
- Worrell TW. Factors associated with hamstring injuries. Sports Medicine. 1994;17(5):338-45.
- Croisier J-L, Ganteaume S, Ferret J. Preseason isokinetic intervention as a preventive strategy for hamstring injury in professional soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005;39(6):379.
- Orchard J, Marsden J, Lord S, Garlick D. Preseason hamstring muscle weakness associated with hamstring muscle injury in Australian footballers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1997;25(1):81-5.
- Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Trolle M, Bangsbo J, Klausen K. Isokinetic hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio: influence from joint angular velocity, gravity correction and contraction mode. Acta Physiologica. 1995;154(4):421-7.
- Öberg B, Möller M, Gillquist J, Ekstrand J. Isokinetic torque levels for knee extensors and knee flexors in soccer players. International journal of sports medicine. 1986;7(01):50-3.
- Gissis I, Papadopoulos C, Kalapotharakos VI, Sotiropoulos A, Komsis G, Manolopoulos E. Strength and speed characteristics of elite, subelite, and recreational young soccer players. Research in sports Medicine. 2006;14(3):205-14.
- Fousekis K, Tsepis E, Vagenas G. Lower limb strength in professional soccer players: profile, asymmetry, and training age. Journal of sports science & medicine. 2010;9(3):364.
- نوروزی ک، جواهری ه، آریامنش اش، خوشرفتاریزدی. تأثیر تمرینات متقاطع بر قدرت عضلات چهارسررانی پس از بازسازی رباط صلیبی قدامی. علوم پیراپزشکی و توانبخشی. 2015;4.
- Daneshjoo A, Mokhtar AH, Rahnama N, Yusof A. The effects of injury prevention warm-up programmes on knee strength in male soccer players. Biol Sport. 2013;30(4):281-8.
- مصطفی ش، عبدالحمید د، نادر ر. تاثیر برنامه پیش گیری کننده آسیب هارمونی بر قدرت ایزومتریک عضلات مفصل زانو در فوتبالیست های مرد حرفه ای جوان.
- Lehance C, Binet J, Bury T, Croisier J-L. Muscular strength, functional performances and injury risk in professional and junior elite soccer players. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2009;19(2):243-51.
- Menzel H-J, Chagas MH, Szmuchrowski LA, Araujo SR, de Andrade AG, de Jesus-Moraleida FR. Analysis of lower limb asymmetries by isokinetic and vertical jump tests in soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2013;27(5):1370-7.
- Papaevangelou E, Metaxas T, Riganas C, Mandroukas A, Vamvakoudis E. Evaluation of soccer performance in professional, semi-professional and amateur players of the same club. Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 2012;12(3):362.