تأثیر دو نوع تمرین تناوبی بر رابطة بین آمادگی قلبی-عروقی و نشانگرهای زیستی آتروژنیک با فشارخون در زنان دارای اضافه‌وزن و چاق

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 مرکز تحقیقات متابولیک کبد، مرکز آموزشی درمانی کودکان امام حسین (ع)، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف:­ چاقی و به‌ویژه چاقی نواحی مرکزی بدن به عوامل خطرزا در بیماری‌های قلبی-عروقی همچون فشار خون و هایپرلیپیدمی وابسته است. هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی رابطة فشار خون با سطوح سرمی سالوسین‌بتا، پروتئین شبه‌آنژیوپویتین نوع3، نیمرخ لیپیدی و شاخص‌های آنتروپومتریک در پی هشت هفته تمرینات تناوبی با شدت‌های متفاوت در زنان دارای اضافه ‌وزن و چاق بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: در این تحقیق 30 زن غیرفعال در سه گروه ده‌نفری به شکل هدفمند تقسیم شدند: گروه کنترل (میانگین سنی 7/28 سال kg/m2, 29/3± 42/30=شاخص تودة بدنی)؛ گروه تمرین تناوبی با شدت متوسط (میانگین سنی 2/30 سال kg/m2, 75/3±19/31=شاخص تودة بدنی) و گروه تمرین تناوبی با شدت زیاد (میانگین سنی 9/28 سال kg/m2, 83/3 ±17/30=شاخص تودة بدنی). آزمودنی‌های گروه‌های تمرینی، به مدت هشت هفته در تمرینات تناوبی رکاب زدن با شدت‌های متفاوت شرکت داشتند. نمونه‌گیری 48 ساعت پیش از اولین جلسة تمرینی برای اندازه‌گیری مقادیر اولیه و 48 ساعت پس از آخرین جلسة تمرین به‌منظور اندازه‌گیری تغییرات صورت گرفت و با روش الایزا مقادیر سرمی سالوسین‌بتا و  پروتئین شبه‌آنژیوپویتین نوع3 تعیین شد. از آزمون‌های تحلیل واریانس عاملی و ضریب همبستگی پیرسون برای بررسی داده استفاده شد.
 نتایج: یافته‌های همبستگی بین متغیرها نشان‌دهندة وجود همبستگی مثبت و معناداری میان فشار خون و پروتئین شبه‌آنژیوپویتین نوع3، دور کمر، نسبت دور کمر به دور باسن، سالوسین‌بتا و همبستگی وارونه و معناداری میان فشار خون و لیپوپروتئین‌های با چگالی بالا  بود. پس از  هشت هفته تمرین تناوبی، نتایج حاصل از آزمون تحلیل واریانس عاملی حاکی از کاهش معنادار سطوح پروتئین شبه‌آنژیوپویتین نوع3، سالوسین‌بتا، تری‌گلیسیرید، وزن، دور کمر، نسبت دور کمر به قد، شاخص تودة بدنی، فشار خون سیستولی و افزایش معنادار سطوح لیپوپروتئین‌های پرچگال در گروه‌های تمرینی است، اما در سطوح سرمی لیپوپروتئین‌های کم‌چگال و مقادیر مربوط به فشار خون دیاستولی و نسبت دور کمر به دور باسن تغییر معناداری متعاقب مداخلات تمرینی مشاهده نشد.
 نتیجه‌گیری: انجام تمرینات تناوبی  که از شدت کافی برخوردار باشند، با بهبود ترکیب بدنی و کاهش برخی پروتئین‌های سرمی مرتبط با فشار خون می‌تواند در بهبود سطح سلامت افراد مؤثر باشد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of two types of interval training on the association between cardiovascular fitness and atherogenic biomarkers with blood pressure in wWomen with overweight/obesity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Nazari 1
  • Vazgen Minasian 1
  • Silva Hovsepian 2
1 Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Metabolic Liver Disease Research Center, Imam Hossien Children’s Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Purpose: Obesity, especially central body obesity, is related to cardiovascular diseases risk factors such as high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between blood pressure and serum levels of salusin-β, angiopoietin-like protein 3, lipid profile and anthropometric indicators following eight weeks of interval training with different intensities among women with overweight/obesity.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 inactive women were divided into three groups of 10 including control group (average age, 28.7 years; body mass index, 30.42±3.29 kg/m2), moderate-intensity interval training group (average age, 30.2 years; body mass index, 31.19 ±3.75 kg/m2), and high-intensity interval training group (average age, 28.9 years ؛body mass index, 30.17 ±3.83 kg/m2). The Subjects in training groups performed eight weeks of interval training encompassed pedaling on a stationary bike with different intensities. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before the first training session (baseline values) and 48 hours after the last training session to measure the serum levels of salusin-β, angiopoietin-like protein 3 by using ELISA method. Factorial ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were used to analyze the data.
Results: Data analysis showed a positive and significant relationship (P<0.05) between blood pressure and angiopoietin-like protein 3, waist-hip ratio, salusin-β, waist circumference and an inverse significant relationship between blood pressure and high density lipoproteins (P<0.05).  Factorial analysis of variance showed a significant decrease in the levels of angiopoietin-like protein 3, salusin-β, triglyceride, weight, waist circumference, waist-stature ratio, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and a significant increase in the levels of high-density lipoproteins following eight weeks of interval training (P<0.05). However, no significant changes were observed for low-density lipoproteins, diastolic blood pressure and waist-hip ratio following interval training.
Conclusion: Interval training with sufficient intensity can be effective in increasing obese/overweight individuals’ health by improving body composition and reducing some serum proteins related to high blood pressure.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Exercise
  • Angiopoietin-like protein 3
  • Salusin-beta
  • Obesity
  1. Kotsis V, Stabouli S, Papakatsika S, Rizos Z, Parati G. Mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2010;33(5):386-93.
  2. Stabouli S, Kotsis V, Papamichael C, Constantopoulos A, Zakopoulos N. Adolescent obesity is associated with high ambulatory blood pressure and increased carotid intimal-medial thickness. The Journal of pediatrics. 2005;147(5):651-6.
  3. Cohen JB. Hypertension in obesity and the impact of weight loss. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017;19(10):1-8.
  4. Choudhury KN, Mainuddin A, Wahiduzzaman M, Islam SMS. Serum lipid profile and its association with hypertension in Bangladesh. Vascular health and risk management. 2014;10:327.
  5. Osuji CU, Omejua EG, Onwubuya EI, Ahaneku GI. Serum lipid profile of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. Int J Hypertens. 2012;2012.
  6. Kadomatsu T, Tabata M, Oike Y. Angiopoietin‐like proteins: emerging targets for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The FEBS journal. 2011;278(4):559-64.
  7. Abu-Farha M, Cherian P, Qaddoumi MG, AlKhairi I, Sriraman D, Alanbaei M, et al. Increased plasma and adipose tissue levels of ANGPTL8/Betatrophin and ANGPTL4 in people with hypertension. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17(1):1-9.
  8. Koishi R, Ando Y, Ono M, Shimamura M, Yasumo H, Fujiwara T, et al. Angptl3 regulates lipid metabolism in mice. Nat Genet. 2002;30(2):151-7.
  9. Ando Y, Shimizugawa T, Takeshita S, Ono M, Shimamura M, Koishi R, et al. A decreased expression of angiopoietin-like 3 is protective against atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. J Lipid Res. 2003;44(6):1216-23.
  10. Guyenet PG. The sympathetic control of blood pressure. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2006;7(5):335-46.
  11. Li H-B, Qin D-N, Cheng K, Su Q, Miao Y-W, Guo J, et al. Central blockade of salusin β attenuates hypertension and hypothalamic inflammation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Sci Rep. 2015;5(1):1-13.
  12. Saito T, Dayanithi G, Saito J, Onaka T, Urabe T, Watanabe T, et al. Chronic Osmotic Stimuli Increase Salusin‐β‐Like Immunoreactivity in the Rat Hypothalamo‐Neurohypophyseal System: Possible Involvement of Salusin‐β on [Ca2+] i Increase and Neurohypophyseal Hormone Release from the Axon Terminals. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20(2):207-19.
  13. Kołakowska U, Kuroczycka–Saniutycz E, Wasilewska A, Olański W. Is the serum level of salusin-β associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis in the pediatric population? Pediatr Nephrol. 2015;30(3):523-31.
  14. Zhang L-L, Ding L, Zhang F, Gao R, Chen Q, Li Y-H, et al. Salusin-β in rostral ventrolateral medulla increases sympathetic outflow and blood pressure via superoxide anions in hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 2014;32(5):1059-67.
  15. Ruangthai R, Phoemsapthawee J. Combined exercise training improves blood pressure and antioxidant capacity in elderly individuals with hypertension. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. 2019;17(2):67-76.
  16. Costa EC, Hay JL, Kehler DS, Boreskie KF, Arora RC, Umpierre D, et al. Effects of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on blood pressure in adults with pre-to established hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Sports Med. 2018;48:2127-42.
  17. Ekblom‐Bak E, Björkman F, Hellenius ML, Ekblom B. A new submaximal cycle ergometer test for prediction of VO2max. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(2):319-26.
  18. Eston R, Reilly T. Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual: tests, procedures and data: volume two: physiology: Routledge; 2013.
  19. Smol E, Kłapcińska B, Kempa K, Fredyk A, Małecki A. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults. Journal of human kinetics. 2015;49:109.
  20. Uryga AK, Bennett MR. Ageing induced vascular smooth muscle cell senescence in atherosclerosis. The Journal of physiology. 2016;594(8):2115-24.
  21. Richter EA, Ruderman NB. AMPK and the biochemistry of exercise: implications for human health and disease. Biochem J. 2009;418(2):261-75.
  22. Kim K-B, Kim K, Kim C, Kang S-J, Kim HJ, Yoon S, et al. Effects of exercise on the body composition and lipid profile of individuals with obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of obesity & metabolic syndrome. 2019;28(4):278.
  23. Okura T, Nakata Y, Tanaka K. Effects of exercise intensity on physical fitness and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Obes Res. 2003;11(9):1131-9.
  24. Racil G, Ounis OB, Hammouda O, Kallel A, Zouhal H, Chamari K, et al. Effects of high vs. moderate exercise intensity during interval training on lipids and adiponectin levels in obese young females. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113(10):2531-40.
  25. Nayak P, Panda S, Thatoi PK, Rattan R, Mohapatra S, Mishra PK. Evaluation of lipid profile and apolipoproteins in essential hypertensive patients. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2016;10(10):BC01.
  26. Bhavani B, Padma T, Sastry B, Reddy NK. Plasma Lipoprotein (a) levels in patients with untreated essential hypertension. Indian J Hum Genet. 2003;9(2).
  27. Clark T, Morey R, Jones MD, Marcos L, Ristov M, Ram A, et al. High-intensity interval training for reducing blood pressure: a randomized trial vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in males with overweight or obesity. Hypertens Res. 2020;43(5):396-403.
  28. Choudhury KN, Mainuddin A, Wahiduzzaman M, Islam SMS. Serum lipid profile and its association with hypertension in Bangladesh. Vascular health and risk management. 2014:327-32.
  29. Paahoo A, Tadibi V, Behpoor N. Effectiveness of Continuous Aerobic Versus High-Intensity Interval Training on Atherosclerotic and Inflammatory Markers in Boys With Overweight/Obesity. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2021;1(aop):1-7.
  30. Niepolski L, Grzegorzewska AE. Salusins and adropin: new peptides potentially involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. Adv Med Sci. 2016;61(2):282-7.
  31. Seravalle G, Grassi G. Obesity and hypertension. Pharmacol Res. 2017;122:1-7.
  32. Browning LM, Hsieh SD, Ashwell M. A systematic review of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for the prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: 0· 5 could be a suitable global boundary value. Nutrition research reviews. 2010;23(2):247-69.
  33. Wewege M, Van Den Berg R, Ward R, Keech A. The effects of high‐intensity interval training vs. moderate‐intensity continuous training on body composition in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Obes Rev. 2017;18(6):635-46.
  34. Khammassi M, Ouerghi N, Hadj-Taieb S, Feki M, Thivel D, Bouassida A. Impact of a 12-week high-intensity interval training without caloric restriction on body composition and lipid profile in sedentary healthy overweight/obese youth. Journal of exercise rehabilitation. 2018;14(1):118.
  35. Tuan NT, Adair LS, Stevens J, Popkin BM. Prediction of hypertension by different anthropometric indices in adults: the change in estimate approach. Public Health Nutr. 2010;13(5):639-46.
  36. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Bautista L, Franzosi MG, Commerford P, et al. Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27 000 participants from 52 countries: a case-control study. The Lancet. 2005;366(9497):1640-9.
  37. Donini LM, Poggiogalle E, Del Balzo V, Lubrano C, Faliva M, Opizzi A, et al. How to estimate fat mass in overweight and obese subjects. Int J Endocrinol. 2013;2013.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Kotsis V, Stabouli S, Papakatsika S, Rizos Z, Parati G. Mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2010;33(5):386-93.
  2. Stabouli S, Kotsis V, Papamichael C, Constantopoulos A, Zakopoulos N. Adolescent obesity is associated with high ambulatory blood pressure and increased carotid intimal-medial thickness. The Journal of pediatrics. 2005;147(5):651-6.
  3. Cohen JB. Hypertension in obesity and the impact of weight loss. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017;19(10):1-8.
  4. Choudhury KN, Mainuddin A, Wahiduzzaman M, Islam SMS. Serum lipid profile and its association with hypertension in Bangladesh. Vascular health and risk management. 2014;10:327.
  5. Osuji CU, Omejua EG, Onwubuya EI, Ahaneku GI. Serum lipid profile of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. Int J Hypertens. 2012;2012.
  6. Kadomatsu T, Tabata M, Oike Y. Angiopoietin‐like proteins: emerging targets for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The FEBS journal. 2011;278(4):559-64.
  7. Abu-Farha M, Cherian P, Qaddoumi MG, AlKhairi I, Sriraman D, Alanbaei M, et al. Increased plasma and adipose tissue levels of ANGPTL8/Betatrophin and ANGPTL4 in people with hypertension. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17(1):1-9.
  8. Koishi R, Ando Y, Ono M, Shimamura M, Yasumo H, Fujiwara T, et al. Angptl3 regulates lipid metabolism in mice. Nat Genet. 2002;30(2):151-7.
  9. Ando Y, Shimizugawa T, Takeshita S, Ono M, Shimamura M, Koishi R, et al. A decreased expression of angiopoietin-like 3 is protective against atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. J Lipid Res. 2003;44(6):1216-23.
  10. Guyenet PG. The sympathetic control of blood pressure. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2006;7(5):335-46.
  11. Li H-B, Qin D-N, Cheng K, Su Q, Miao Y-W, Guo J, et al. Central blockade of salusin β attenuates hypertension and hypothalamic inflammation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Sci Rep. 2015;5(1):1-13.
  12. Saito T, Dayanithi G, Saito J, Onaka T, Urabe T, Watanabe T, et al. Chronic Osmotic Stimuli Increase Salusin‐β‐Like Immunoreactivity in the Rat Hypothalamo‐Neurohypophyseal System: Possible Involvement of Salusin‐β on [Ca2+] i Increase and Neurohypophyseal Hormone Release from the Axon Terminals. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20(2):207-19.
  13. Kołakowska U, Kuroczycka–Saniutycz E, Wasilewska A, Olański W. Is the serum level of salusin-β associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis in the pediatric population? Pediatr Nephrol. 2015;30(3):523-31.
  14. Zhang L-L, Ding L, Zhang F, Gao R, Chen Q, Li Y-H, et al. Salusin-β in rostral ventrolateral medulla increases sympathetic outflow and blood pressure via superoxide anions in hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 2014;32(5):1059-67.
  15. Ruangthai R, Phoemsapthawee J. Combined exercise training improves blood pressure and antioxidant capacity in elderly individuals with hypertension. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. 2019;17(2):67-76.
  16. Costa EC, Hay JL, Kehler DS, Boreskie KF, Arora RC, Umpierre D, et al. Effects of high-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on blood pressure in adults with pre-to established hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Sports Med. 2018;48:2127-42.
  17. Ekblom‐Bak E, Björkman F, Hellenius ML, Ekblom B. A new submaximal cycle ergometer test for prediction of VO2max. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(2):319-26.
  18. Eston R, Reilly T. Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual: tests, procedures and data: volume two: physiology: Routledge; 2013.
  19. Smol E, Kłapcińska B, Kempa K, Fredyk A, Małecki A. Effects of Regular Recreational Exercise Training on Serum ANGPTL3-Like Protein and Lipid Profile in Young Healthy Adults. Journal of human kinetics. 2015;49:109.
  20. Uryga AK, Bennett MR. Ageing induced vascular smooth muscle cell senescence in atherosclerosis. The Journal of physiology. 2016;594(8):2115-24.
  21. Richter EA, Ruderman NB. AMPK and the biochemistry of exercise: implications for human health and disease. Biochem J. 2009;418(2):261-75.
  22. Kim K-B, Kim K, Kim C, Kang S-J, Kim HJ, Yoon S, et al. Effects of exercise on the body composition and lipid profile of individuals with obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of obesity & metabolic syndrome. 2019;28(4):278.
  23. Okura T, Nakata Y, Tanaka K. Effects of exercise intensity on physical fitness and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Obes Res. 2003;11(9):1131-9.
  24. Racil G, Ounis OB, Hammouda O, Kallel A, Zouhal H, Chamari K, et al. Effects of high vs. moderate exercise intensity during interval training on lipids and adiponectin levels in obese young females. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113(10):2531-40.
  25. Nayak P, Panda S, Thatoi PK, Rattan R, Mohapatra S, Mishra PK. Evaluation of lipid profile and apolipoproteins in essential hypertensive patients. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2016;10(10):BC01.
  26. Bhavani B, Padma T, Sastry B, Reddy NK. Plasma Lipoprotein (a) levels in patients with untreated essential hypertension. Indian J Hum Genet. 2003;9(2).
  27. Clark T, Morey R, Jones MD, Marcos L, Ristov M, Ram A, et al. High-intensity interval training for reducing blood pressure: a randomized trial vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in males with overweight or obesity. Hypertens Res. 2020;43(5):396-403.
  28. Choudhury KN, Mainuddin A, Wahiduzzaman M, Islam SMS. Serum lipid profile and its association with hypertension in Bangladesh. Vascular health and risk management. 2014:327-32.
  29. Paahoo A, Tadibi V, Behpoor N. Effectiveness of Continuous Aerobic Versus High-Intensity Interval Training on Atherosclerotic and Inflammatory Markers in Boys With Overweight/Obesity. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2021;1(aop):1-7.
  30. Niepolski L, Grzegorzewska AE. Salusins and adropin: new peptides potentially involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. Adv Med Sci. 2016;61(2):282-7.
  31. Seravalle G, Grassi G. Obesity and hypertension. Pharmacol Res. 2017;122:1-7.
  32. Browning LM, Hsieh SD, Ashwell M. A systematic review of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for the prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: 0· 5 could be a suitable global boundary value. Nutrition research reviews. 2010;23(2):247-69.
  33. Wewege M, Van Den Berg R, Ward R, Keech A. The effects of high‐intensity interval training vs. moderate‐intensity continuous training on body composition in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Obes Rev. 2017;18(6):635-46.
  34. Khammassi M, Ouerghi N, Hadj-Taieb S, Feki M, Thivel D, Bouassida A. Impact of a 12-week high-intensity interval training without caloric restriction on body composition and lipid profile in sedentary healthy overweight/obese youth. Journal of exercise rehabilitation. 2018;14(1):118.
  35. Tuan NT, Adair LS, Stevens J, Popkin BM. Prediction of hypertension by different anthropometric indices in adults: the change in estimate approach. Public Health Nutr. 2010;13(5):639-46.
  36. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Bautista L, Franzosi MG, Commerford P, et al. Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27 000 participants from 52 countries: a case-control study. The Lancet. 2005;366(9497):1640-9.
  37. Donini LM, Poggiogalle E, Del Balzo V, Lubrano C, Faliva M, Opizzi A, et al. How to estimate fat mass in overweight and obese subjects. Int J Endocrinol. 2013;2013.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Kotsis V, Stabouli S, Papakatsika S, Rizos Z, Parati G. Mechanisms of obesity-induced hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2010;33(5):386-93.
  2. Stabouli S, Kotsis V, Papamichael C, Constantopoulos A, Zakopoulos N. Adolescent obesity is associated with high ambulatory blood pressure and increased carotid intimal-medial thickness. The Journal of pediatrics. 2005;147(5):651-6.
  3. Cohen JB. Hypertension in obesity and the impact of weight loss. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2017;19(10):1-8.
  4. Choudhury KN, Mainuddin A, Wahiduzzaman M, Islam SMS. Serum lipid profile and its association with hypertension in Bangladesh. Vascular health and risk management. 2014;10:327.
  5. Osuji CU, Omejua EG, Onwubuya EI, Ahaneku GI. Serum lipid profile of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in Nnewi, South-East Nigeria. Int J Hypertens. 2012;2012.
  6. Kadomatsu T, Tabata M, Oike Y. Angiopoietin‐like proteins: emerging targets for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. The FEBS journal. 2011;278(4):559-64.
  7. Abu-Farha M, Cherian P, Qaddoumi MG, AlKhairi I, Sriraman D, Alanbaei M, et al. Increased plasma and adipose tissue levels of ANGPTL8/Betatrophin and ANGPTL4 in people with hypertension. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17(1):1-9.
  8. Koishi R, Ando Y, Ono M, Shimamura M, Yasumo H, Fujiwara T, et al. Angptl3 regulates lipid metabolism in mice. Nat Genet. 2002;30(2):151-7.
  9. Ando Y, Shimizugawa T, Takeshita S, Ono M, Shimamura M, Koishi R, et al. A decreased expression of angiopoietin-like 3 is protective against atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. J Lipid Res. 2003;44(6):1216-23.
  10. Guyenet PG. The sympathetic control of blood pressure. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2006;7(5):335-46.
  11. Li H-B, Qin D-N, Cheng K, Su Q, Miao Y-W, Guo J, et al. Central blockade of salusin β attenuates hypertension and hypothalamic inflammation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Sci Rep. 2015;5(1):1-13.
  12. Saito T, Dayanithi G, Saito J, Onaka T, Urabe T, Watanabe T, et al. Chronic Osmotic Stimuli Increase Salusin‐β‐Like Immunoreactivity in the Rat Hypothalamo‐Neurohypophyseal System: Possible Involvement of Salusin‐β on [Ca2+] i Increase and Neurohypophyseal Hormone Release from the Axon Terminals. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20(2):207-19.
  13. Kołakowska U, Kuroczycka–Saniutycz E, Wasilewska A, Olański W. Is the serum level of salusin-β associated with hypertension and atherosclerosis in the pediatric population? Pediatr Nephrol. 2015;30(3):523-31.
  14. Zhang L-L, Ding L, Zhang F, Gao R, Chen Q, Li Y-H, et al. Salusin-β in rostral ventrolateral medulla increases sympathetic outflow and blood pressure via superoxide anions in hypertensive rats. J Hypertens. 2014;32(5):1059-67.
  15. Ruangthai R, Phoemsapthawee J. Combined exercise training improves blood pressure and antioxidant capacity in elderly individuals with hypertension. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness. 2019;17(2):67-76.
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  • تاریخ دریافت: 18 تیر 1402
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 09 مرداد 1402
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 01 مهر 1402
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 آذر 1402
  • تاریخ انتشار: 01 بهمن 1402