تأثیر چهار هفته سنگ‌نوردی با و بدون محدودیت جریان خون بر مقادیر سرمی پروتئین واکنشگر C، لاکتات دهیدروژناز و کراتین کیناز سنگ‌نوردان نخبه

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 وزارت علوم تحقیقات و فناوری/دانشگاه تبریز، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تبریز، ایران

2 وزارت علوم تحقیقات و فناوری /دانشگاه تبریز، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تبریز، ایران

10.29252/joeppa.13.2.75

چکیده

هدف: تمرینات ورزشی با محدودیت ‌جریان‌ خون با تغییر ایمنی‌شناختی و همچنین تغییر در شاخص‌های التهابی و آسیب عضلانی همراه است، ازاین‌رو هدف از مطالعۀ حاضر، بررسی تأثیر 4 هفته سنگ‌نوردی با و بدون محدودیت جریان خون بر میزان شاخص‌های LDH، CK و CRP ناشی از فعالیت ورزشی در سنگ‌نوردان نخبه بود.
روش‌ها: 12 زن و 12مرد سنگ‌نورد با سابقۀ حداقل 4 سال و دامنۀ سنی 32/2±54/23 تا 38/3±18/27 سال و درصد چربی 12/1±22/8 تا 18/1±19/14 درصد به‌صورت هدفمند از بین سنگ‌نوردان ‌نخبه انتخاب شدند و با تخصیص تصادفی در یکی از دو گروه تمرین با محدودیت جریان خون و تمرین بدون محدودیت جریان خون قرار گرفتند. برنامۀ تمرین به مدت 4 هفته انجام گرفت (با شدت 60 - 80 درصد درجۀ سختی مسیر به مدت 90 دقیقه و 3 جلسه در هفته). نمونۀ خونی در دو مرحله (پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون) در وضعیت نشسته و در حال استراحت به‌منظور تعیین مقدار لاکتات ‌دهیدروژناز، کراتین‌کیناز، لاکتات ‌خون و پروتئین واکنشگر C دریافت شد. برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون ‌تی مستقل برای مقایسۀ میانگین‌ها و آزمون‌کولموگروف ‌اسمیرنوف برای بررسی همگنی دو گروه در سطح معنا‌داری 05/0 α ≤ استفاده شد.
نتایج: نتایج نشان داد شاخص آسیب عضلانی LDH، CK و شاخص التهابی CRP در پاسخ به تمرین سنگ‌نوردی با و بدون محدودیت جریان خون بین دو گروه تفاوت معنا‌داری نداشت ( 05/0<p).
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش سنگ‌نوردی با محدودیت جریان خون نسبت به بدون محدودیت جریان خون سبب افزایش شاخص‌های التهابی و آسیب عضلانی نمی‌شود، احتمالاٌ این شیوۀ تمرینات از منظر فشار مکانیکی و متابولیکی ناشی از فعالیت ورزشی برای سنگ‌نوردان ایمن است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of 4 weeks of rock climbing with and without blood flow restriction, on Serum Levels of CRP, LDH and CK in elite rock climbers

نویسندگان [English]

  • fateme halalkhor 1
  • Mansour Aghaei 2
  • Jawad Vakili 1
1 Ministry of Science, Research and Technology
2 University of Tabriz, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

purpose: Exercise training with blood flow restrictionare associated with immunological changes as well as changes in the indices of inflammation and muscle damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was conducted to identify the effect of 4 weeks rock climbing with and without blood flow restriction on response of the LDH, CK and CRP in elite rock climbers.
Methods:12 elite male and 12 female rock climbers with at least 4 years rock climbing experience and age range of 23.54±2.32 to 27.18±3.18 years and a fat percentage of 8.22±1.12 to 14.19±1.18 percent were selected purposefully among elite climbers and randomly assigned to one of two groups The exercises were limited by blood flow and exercise without limitation of blood flow. The exercise protocol was performed for 4 weeks (three sessions per week and each session was 90 minutes, severity of each session was 60 to 80% of climbing grades). Blood samples were taken in two stages (pre and post test) in sitting and resting conditions to determine the amount of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, blood lactate and C-reactive protein. To analyze the data, an independent test was used to compare the meanings and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for homogeneity of the two groups at a significant level of α ≤0.05.
Results: The results showed that the index of muscle damage of LDH, CK and inflammatory CRP index did not show a significant difference in response to climbing exercises with and without blood flow restriction between the two groups (P <0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, rock climbing training with or without blood flow restriction, do not increase inflammatory and muscular damage, and this method of training is likely to be safe for climbers due to the mechanical and metabolic pressure of exercise activity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Blood flow restriction
  • Rock climbing
  • inflammatory markers
  • Muscular damage
1. Deyhle MR, Hsu HS, Fairfield TJ, Cadez-Schmidt TL, Gurney BA, Mermier CM. Relative Importance Of Four Muscle Groups For Indoor Rock Climbing Performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(7):2006-14.
2. Fanchini M, Violette F, Impellizzeri FM, Maffiuletti NA. Differences In Climbing-Specific Strength Between Boulder And Lead Rock Climbers. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(2):310-4.
3. Bertuzzi RC, Franchini E, Kokubun E, Kiss MA. Energy System Contributions In Indoor Rock Climbing. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;101(3);293-300.
4. Draper N, Dickson T, Fryer S, Blackwell G, Winter D, Scarrott C, Et Al. Plasma Cortisol Concentrations And Perceived Anxiety In Response To On-Sight Rock Climbing. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33(1):13-7.
5. Dickson T, Fryer S, Draper N, Winter D, Ellis G, Hamlin M. Comparison Of Plasma Cortisol Sampling Sites For Rock Climbing. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012;52(6):688-95.
6. Fujita T, Kurita K, Sato Y, Abe T. Increased Muscle Volume And Strength Following Six Days Of Low-Intensity Resistance Training With Restricted Muscle Blood Flow. International Journal Of KAATSU Training Research. 2008;4(1):1-8.
7. Buckner SL, Dankel SJ, Counts BR, Jessee MB, Mouser JG, Mattocks KT, Et Al. Influence Of Cuff Material On Blood Flow Restriction Stimulus In The Upper Body. J Physiol Sci. 2017;67(1):207-15.
8. Scott BR, Loenneke JP, Slattery KM, Dascombe BJ. Blood Flow Restricted Exercise For Athletes: A Review Of Available Evidence. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(5):360-7.
9. Teixeira EL, Barroso R, Silva-Batista C, Laurentino GC, Loenneke JP, Roschel H, Et Al. Blood Flow Restriction Increases Metabolic Stress But Decreases Muscle Activation During High-Load Resistance Exercise. Muscle Nerve. 2017.
10. Taylor CW, Ingham SA, Ferguson RA. Acute And Chronic Effect Of Sprint Interval Training Combined With Postexercise Blood-Flow Restriction In Trained Individuals. Exp Physiol. 2016;101(1):143-54.
11. Shimizu R, Hotta K, Yamamoto S, Matsumoto T, Kamiya K, Kato M, Et Al. Low-Intensity Resistance Training With Blood Flow Restriction Improves Vascular Endothelial Function And Peripheral Blood Circulation In Healthy Elderly People. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116(4):749-57.
12. Neto GR, Novaes JS, Dias I, Brown A, Vianna J, Cirilo-Sousa MS. Effects Of Resistance Training With Blood Flow Restriction On Haemodynamics: A Systematic Review. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2016.
13. Kim E, Gregg LD, Kim L, Sherk VD, Bemben MG, Bemben DA. Hormone Responses To An Acute Bout Of Low Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Exercise In College-Aged Females. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(1):91-6.
14. Moore DR, Burgomaster KA, Schofield LM, Gibala MJ, Sale DG, Phillips SM. Neuromuscular Adaptations In Human Muscle Following Low Intensity Resistance Training With Vascular Occlusion. European Journal Of Applied Physiology. 2004;92(4-5):399-406.
15. Abe T, Hinata S, Koizumi K, Sato Y. Day-To-Day Change In Muscle Strength And MRI-Measured Skeletal Muscle Size During 7 Days KAATSU Resistance Training: A Case Study. International Journal Of KAATSU Training Research. 2005;1(2):71-6.
16. Wilson JM, Lowery RP, Joy JM, Loenneke JP, Naimo MA. Practical Blood Flow Restriction Training Increases Acute Determinants Of Hypertrophy Without Increasing Indices Of Muscle Damage. The Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2013;27(11):3068-75.
17. Thiebaud RS, Yasuda T, Loenneke JP, Abe T. Effects Of Low-Intensity Concentric And Eccentric Exercise Combined With Blood Flow Restriction On Indices Of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. Interventional Medicine And Applied Science. 2013;5(2):53-9.
18. Madarame H, Kurano M, Fukumura K, Fukuda T, Nakajima T. Haemostatic And Inflammatory Responses To Blood Flow‐Restricted Exercise In Patients With Ischaemic Heart Disease: A Pilot Study. Clinical Physiology And Functional Imaging. 2013;33(1):11-7.
19. Takarada Y, Nakamura Y, Aruga S, Onda T, Miyazaki S, Ishii N. Rapid Increase In Plasma Growth Hormone After Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise With Vascular Occlusion. Journal Of Applied Physiology. 2000;88(1):61-5.
20. Lutter C, El-Sheikh Y, Schöffl I, Schöffl V. Sport Climbing: Medical Considerations For This New Olympic Discipline. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd And British Association Of Sport And Exercise Medicine; 2017.
21. Espana-Romero V, Jensen RL, Sanchez X, Ostrowski ML, Szekely JE, Watts PB. Physiological Responses In Rock Climbing With Repeated Ascents Over A 10-Week Period. European Journal Of Applied Physiology. 2012;112(3):821-8.
22. Draper N, Dickson T, Blackwell G, Priestley S, Fryer S, Marshall H, Et Al. Sport-Specific Power Assessment For Rock Climbing. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2011;51(3):417-25.
23. Heidari, Reza Sa, Fathi, Editors. Frequency And Causes Of Various Types Of Lesions In Ladies And Gentlemen. National Conference On Applied Physical Education And Sport Sciences; 2016
24. Jessee MB, Buckner SL, Dankel SJ, Counts BR, Abe T, Loenneke JP. The Influence Of Cuff Width, Sex, And Race On Arterial Occlusion: Implications For Blood Flow Restriction Research. Sports Med. 2016;46(6):913-21.
25. Hunt JE, Stodart C, Ferguson RA. The Influence Of Participant Characteristics On The Relationship Between Cuff Pressure And Level Of Blood Flow Restriction. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116(7):1421-32.
26.     Barari A. Plyometric Training And Consumption Of Supplement On Changes Of Cytokines Levels And Performance In Basketball Players.2013;3(5)1-6
27. Kraemer WJ, Harman FS, Vos NH, Gordon SE, Nindl BC, Marx JO, Et Al. Effects Of Exercise And Alkalosis On Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor I And IGF-Binding Protein-3. Canadian Journal Of Applied Physiology. 2000;25(2):127-38.
28. Neto GR, Novaes JS, Salerno VP, Gonçalves MM, Piazera BK, Rodrigues-Rodrigues T, Et Al. Acute Effects Of Resistance Exercise With Continuous And Intermittent Blood Flow Restriction On Hemodynamic Measurements And Perceived Exertion. Perceptual And Motor Skills. 2017;124(1):277-92.
29. Rahmati, Saeed, Rajabi, Hamid, Karimzadeh, Latifa. Acute And Chronic Effects Of Subclinical Activity With Limited Blood Flow On Serum BDNF And Serum Tnfα In Active Men. Sports Life Sciences, 1395.[Persian].
30. Aref Basereh1 KE, Fariborz Hovanloo3, Pooneh Dehghan4, Keivan Khoramipour. Effect Of Blood Flow Restriction Deal During Isometric Exercise On Growth Hormone And Testosterone Active Males.2017; 9 (33) ; 51- 68.
31. Suga T, Okita K, Morita N, Yokota T, Hirabayashi K, Horiuchi M, Et Al. Dose Effect On Intramuscular Metabolic Stress During Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise With Blood Flow Restriction. Journal Of Applied Physiology. 2010;108(6):1563-7.
32. Henry PD, Roberts R, Sobel BE. Rapid Separation Of Plasma Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes By Batch Adsorption On Glass Beads. Clinical Chemistry. 1975;21(7):844-9.
33. Suga T, Okita K, Takada S, Omokawa M, Kadoguchi T, Yokota T, Et Al. Effect Of Multiple Set On Intramuscular Metabolic Stress During Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise With Blood Flow Restriction. European Journal Of Applied Physiology. 2012;112(11):3915-20.
34. Takarada Y, Nakamura Y, Aruga S, Onda T, Miyazaki S, Ishii N. Rapid Increase In Plasma Growth Hormone After Low-Intensity Resistance Exercise With Vascular Occlusion. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;88(1):61-5.
35. Walker DB. Serum Chemical Biomarkers Of Cardiac Injury For Nonclinical Safety Testing. Toxicologic Pathology. 2006;34(1):94-104.
36. Abe T, Kearns CF, Sato Y. Muscle Size And Strength Are Increased Following Walk Training With Restricted Venous Blood Flow From The Leg Muscle, Kaatsu-Walk Training. Journal Of Applied Physiology. 2006;100(5):1460-6.
37. Sato Y, Yoshitomi A, Abe T. Acute Growth Hormone Response To Low-Intensity KAATSU Resistance Exercise: Comparison Between Arm And Leg. International Journal Of KAATSU Training Research. 2005;1(2):45-50.
38. Umbel JD, Hoffman RL, Dearth DJ, Chleboun GS, Manini TM, Clark BC. Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness Induced By Low-Load Blood Flow-Restricted Exercise. European Journal Of Applied Physiology. 2009;107(6):687.
39. Ohta A, Lukashev D, Jackson EK, Fredholm BB, Sitkovsky M. 1, 3, 7-Trimethylxanthine (Caffeine) May Exacerbate Acute Inflammatory Liver Injury By Weakening The Physiological Immunosuppressive Mechanism. The Journal Of Immunology. 2007;179(11):7431-8.
40. Fink R, Hase S, Lüttgau HC, Wettwer E. The Effect Of Cellular Energy Reserves And Internal Calcium Ions On The Potassium Conductance In Skeletal Muscle Of The Frog. The Journal Of Physiology. 1983;336(1);211-28
41. Neto GR, Novaes JS, Salerno VP, Gonçalves MM, Batista GR, Cirilo-Sousa MS. Does A Resistance Exercise Session With Continuous Or Intermittent Blood Flow Restriction Promote Muscle Damage And Increase Oxidative Stress? Journal Of Sports Sciences. 2017:1-7.
42. Deminice R, Sicchieri T, Mialich MS, Milani F, Ovidio PP, Jordao AA. Oxidative Stress Biomarker Responses To An Acute Session Of Hypertrophy-Resistance Traditional Interval Training And Circuit Training. The Journal Of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2011;25(3):798-804.
43. Porsesh M, Habibi A, Ahmadi Barati S, Fatemi S. Comparison Of The Effect Of 6 Weeks Resistance Training With And Without Vascular Occlusion, On Serum Levels Of CRP And LDH In Active Girls. The Journal Of Shahid Sadoughi University Of Medical Sciences. 2016;24(9):706-15.
44. Clark B, Manini T, Hoffman R, Williams P, Guiler M, Knutson M, Et Al. Relative Safety Of 4 Weeks Of Blood Flow‐Restricted Resistance Exercise In Young, Healthy Adults. Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports. 2011;21(5):653-62.
45. Mendham AE, Donges CE, Liberts EA, Duffield R. Effects Of Mode And Intensity On The Acute Exercise-Induced IL-6 And CRP Responses In A Sedentary, Overweight Population. European Journal Of Applied Physiology. 2011;111(6):1035-45.
46. Ramezanpour M.R., Hejazi S.M., Mottaghy Shahri S., Kianmehr M., Mottaghy Shahri M.R. Comparison The Effect Of Interval, Continuous And Parallel Aerobic Exercise On Urea, Uric Acid And Creatinine Of Urine Level. Quarterly Of Horizon Of Medical Sciences. 2013;19(3):137-41.
47. Mohammadi Zia F, Dabidi Roshan V, Kanemati H. Effect Of Vitamin E Supplementation On Changes Of NO, LDH, And Plasma CPK Disabled Men Looking For A Bout Of Resistance Exercise 2009; 35-46. Persian.